The IPP business model, rare in Germany for decades, has become increasingly popular since EEG (for renewable energy). The success of the approach depends on the search for a partner for the distribution of the energy produced to the customer. Section 210 of purpa now requires utilities to purchase energy from QFs at the avoided cost of the utility. This allows QFs to get a reasonable to excellent price for the energy they produce and ensures that the energy produced by small producers is not wasted.  In 2015, Pakistan adopted a new power policy that established 13 other IPPs, mostly from Chinese companies. A transport policy for the development of transmission lines in the private sector was also announced. In 2002, the Government of British Columbia determined that new clean renewable energy generation in the province should be developed by “independent power producers” (IPPs) and not by BC Hydro, with the exception of large hydroelectric plants. The role of the private sector in the development of British Columbia`s “public” resources is one of the most controversial issues facing the people of British Columbia today. For most IPPs, especially in the renewable energy sector, a feed-in tariff or power purchase agreement offers a long-term price guarantee. NGUs were rare before the passage of the U.S. Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978.
The few existing were rarely able to distribute electricity because the cost of building the transmission infrastructure was prohibitive. Utilities generated electricity and owned the generation facilities, transmission lines, and local distribution and delivery systems. However, PUPA established a class of non-utility generators called Eligible Facilities (GF), which were authorized to generate electricity for resale. PurPA is expected to reduce national dependence on foreign energy, promote energy savings, and reduce the ability of electric utilities to abuse the purchase of electricity from QFs. A QF is defined as a generating plant that produces electricity and another form of thermal energy useful through the sequential use of energy and meets certain ownership, operating and efficiency criteria established by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). India also has many IPPs like ReNew Power, Adani, Hero, Mytrah, Ostro, Greenko, Alfanar, etc. More than 40 PPIs were active in Pakistan in 2018. An independent water and power generator (IWPP) is similar to an IPP, but also has a unified process to produce usable treated water.  An independent power producer (IPP) or a non-supplier producer (NUG) is an enterprise that is not a utility, but has facilities to generate electricity for sale to utilities and end-users.  NGUs can be private entities, enterprises, cooperatives such as rural solar or wind energy producers and non-energy enterprises capable of injecting excess energy into the system.  The Taiwanese electricity market was liberalised in January 1995. Nine IPP companies currently operate in Taiwan.
 In 2002, the new government adopted a new policy, according to which 12 other PPIs began their work. In 1994, the Pakistani government announced an investor-friendly policy to develop IPPs based on oil, coal and gas. As a result of this policy, 16 PPIs were put in place. The following year, a hydroelectric policy was announced that led to the development of the country`s first Hydro IPP. .